Stock Based Compensation Plans
|12 Months Ended
May 31, 2011
|Stock-Based Compensation Plans [Abstract]
|Stock-Based Compensation Plans
The Paychex, Inc. 2002 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended and restated (the “2002 Plan”), effective on October 13, 2010 upon its approval by the Company’s stockholders, authorizes grants of up to 39.1 million shares of the Company’s common stock. As of May 31, 2011, there were 24.8 million shares available for future grants under the 2002 Plan. No future grants will be made pursuant to the Paychex, Inc. 1998 Stock Incentive Plan, which expired in August 2002; however, options to purchase an aggregate of 1.0 million shares under the plan remain outstanding as of May 31, 2011.
All stock-based awards to employees are recognized as compensation costs in the consolidated financial statements based on their fair values measured as of the date of grant. These costs are recognized as an expense in the Consolidated Statements of Income on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period and increase additional paid-in capital. Grants prior to June 1, 2006 were expensed on an accelerated basis.
Stock-based compensation expense was $24.8 million, $25.6 million, and $25.7 million for fiscal years 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. Related income tax benefits recognized were $8.4 million, $7.9 million, and $8.0 million for the respective fiscal years. Capitalized stock-based compensation costs related to the development of internal use software for these same fiscal years were not significant.
As of May 31, 2011, the total unrecognized compensation cost related to all unvested stock-based awards was $36.9 million and is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.7 years.
Stock option grants: Stock option grants entitle the holder to purchase, at the end of the vesting term, a specified number of shares of Paychex common stock at an exercise price per share set equal to the closing market price of the common stock on the date of grant. All stock option grants have a contractual life of ten years from the date of the grant and a vesting schedule as established by the Board of Directors (the “Board”). The Company issues new shares of common stock to satisfy stock option exercises. Non-qualified stock option grants to officers and outside directors are typically approved by the Board in July. Non-qualified stock option grants to officers and employees granted prior to July 2010 vest 20% per annum, while grants to the Board prior to October 2010 vest one-third per annum. Grants on non-qualified stock options to officers beginning in July 2010 vest 25% per annum. Grants to members of the Board beginning in October 2010 vest after one year.
The Company has granted stock options to virtually all non-management employees with at least 90 days of service, and shares remain outstanding for the following broad-based stock option grants:
Prior to fiscal 2011, each April and October, the Company had granted options to newly hired employees who met certain criteria. Beginning with grants issued in October 2005, such grants of options vest 20% per annum. Any future grants of stock-based awards are subject to the discretion of the Board.
The following table summarizes stock option activity for the three years ended May 31, 2011:
Other information pertaining to stock option grants is as follows:
The fair value of stock option grants was estimated at the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option pricing model. The weighted-average assumptions used for valuation under the Black-Scholes model are as follows:
Risk-free interest rates are yields for zero coupon U.S. Treasury notes maturing approximately at the end of the expected option life. The estimated volatility factor is based on a combination of historical volatility using weekly stock prices over a period equal to the expected option life and implied market volatility. The expected option life is based on historical exercise behavior.
The Company has determined that the Black-Scholes option pricing model, as well as the underlying assumptions used in its application, are appropriate in estimating the fair value of its stock option grants. The Company periodically assesses its assumptions as well as its choice of valuation model, and will reconsider use of this model if additional information becomes available in the future indicating that another model would provide a more accurate estimate of fair value, or if characteristics of future grants would warrant such a change.
Restricted stock awards: The Board has approved grants of restricted stock awards to the Company’s officers and outside directors in accordance with the 2002 Plan. All shares underlying awards of restricted stock are restricted in that they are not transferable until they vest. The recipients of the restricted stock have voting rights and earn dividends, which are paid to the recipient at the time of vesting of the awards. If the recipient leaves Paychex prior to the vesting date for any reason, the shares of restricted stock and the dividends accrued on those shares will be forfeited and returned to Paychex.
For restricted stock awards granted to officers prior to July 2010, the shares vest upon the fifth anniversary of the grant date provided the recipient is still an employee of the Company on that date. These awards have a provision for the acceleration of vesting based on achievement of performance targets established by the Board. If the established targets are met for a fiscal year, up to one-third of the award may vest. If all the targets are met for three consecutive years, the award will be fully vested. Beginning in July 2010, time-vested restricted stock awards were granted to officers, which vest one-third per annum over three years. For grants to outside directors prior to October 2010, the shares vest on the third anniversary of the grant date. Beginning in October, 2010, restricted stock granted to outside directors vest on the one-year anniversary of the grant date. The fair value of restricted stock awards is equal to the closing market price of the underlying common stock as of the date of grant and is expensed over the requisite service period on a straight-line basis.
The following table summarizes restricted stock activity for the three years ended May 31, 2011:
Restricted stock units: Beginning in July 2007, the Board approved grants of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) to non-officer management as a replacement of non-qualified stock options. RSUs do not have voting rights or earn dividend equivalents during the vesting period. These awards vest 20% per annum over five years with a small population of awards vesting on the fourth anniversary of the grant date. The fair value of RSUs is equal to the closing market price of the underlying common stock as of the date of grant, adjusted for the present value of expected dividends over the vesting period.
The following table summarizes RSU activity for the three years ended May 31, 2011:
Performance shares: Beginning in July 2010, the Board approved grants of performance shares to officers and directors. These awards have a two-year performance period, after which the amount of restricted shares earned will be determined based on achievement against performance targets established at the time of Board approval of the awards. The restricted shares earned will then be subject to a one-year service period until the restrictions lapse. Performance shares do not have voting rights or earn dividend equivalents during the performance period. The fair value of performance shares is equal to the closing market price of the underlying common stock as of the date of grant, adjusted for the present value of expected dividends over the performance period.
The following table summarizes performance share activity for the three years ended May 31, 2011:
Non-compensatory employee benefit plan: The Company offers an Employee Stock Purchase Plan to all employees under which the Company’s common stock can be purchased through a payroll deduction with no discount to the market price and no look-back provision. All transactions occur directly through the Company’s transfer agent and no brokerage fees are charged to employees, except for when stock is sold. The plan has been deemed non-compensatory and therefore, no stock-based compensation costs have been recognized for fiscal years 2011, 2010, or 2009 related to this plan.