Fair Value Measurements
|12 Months Ended|
May 31, 2019
|Fair Value Measurements [Abstract]|
|Fair Value Measurements||
Note H — Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The accounting standards related to fair value measurements include a hierarchy for information and valuations used in measuring fair value that is broken down into three levels based on reliability, as follows:
The carrying values of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents, accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts, accounts payable and short-term borrowings, when used by the Company, approximate fair value due to the short maturities of these instruments. Marketable securities included in funds held for clients and corporate investments consist primarily of securities classified as available-for-sale and are recorded at fair value on a recurring basis.
The Company’s financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis were as follows:
In determining the fair value of its assets and liabilities, the Company predominately uses the market approach. Money market securities, which are cash equivalents, are valued based on quoted market prices in active markets. Commercial paper and time deposits, which are cash equivalents, are considered Level 2 investments as they are valued based on similar, but not identical, instruments in active markets. Available-for-sale securities, including municipal bonds, asset-backed securities, variable rate demand notes, corporate bonds, and U.S. government agency and treasury securities, are included in Level 2 and are valued utilizing inputs obtained from an independent pricing service. To determine the fair value of the Company’s Level 2 available-for-sale securities, the independent pricing service uses a variety of inputs, including benchmark yields, reported trades, non-binding broker/dealer quotes, issuer spreads, two-sided markets, benchmark securities, bids, offers, reference data, new issue data, and monthly payment information. The Company has not adjusted the prices obtained from the independent pricing service because it believes that they are appropriately valued.
Assets included as other are mutual fund investments, consisting of participants’ eligible deferral contributions under the Company’s non-qualified and unfunded deferred compensation plans. The related liability is reported as other long-term liabilities. The mutual funds are valued based on quoted market prices in active markets.
The Company’s financial liabilities accounted for under historical cost but for which fair value measurements are periodically determined on a non-recurring basis were as follows:
There were no long-term borrowings outstanding as of May 31, 2018.
The Company’s long-term borrowings are not traded in active markets and as a result its fair values were estimated using a market approach employing Level 2 valuation inputs, including borrowing rates the Company believes are currently available based on loans with similar terms and maturities.
The preceding methods described may produce a fair value calculation that may not be indicative of net realizable value or reflective of future fair values. Furthermore, although the Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different fair value measurement at the reporting date.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef